THE ESSENTIALS OF UNIFIED PHYSICAL THEORY
(Last revised 21 November 2001)
(See Chapter-2 of the NewBookOnUPT on the website, namely, "Realistic Foundations of Physics & Cosmology"/(The Beginning Realistic Science)
Copyright by the author Prof. Dr. Rati Ram Sharma- all rights reserved.
Note: The Unified Physical Theory brings out and rectifies errors in the current theories of Physics and Cosmology. You are most welcome to email well-argued comments to take these new ideas further to fruition.
This article will present the salient features of the Unified Physical Theory (UPT)  vis-a-vis current theories of Physics and Cosmology. We right away start with the Standard Model.
1. The modern Standard Model
The modern Standard Model [2-7] has three generations of quarks and leptons. The first generation has two quark flavors (up u, down d) and two leptons (electron e-, electron neutrino n e). The three quark colours give eight particles and eight antiparticles. Left and right handedness, relevant in weak force, doubles this number. But because the right-handed neutrino and left-handed antineutrino do not exist, the number of distinct particle states in the first generation is 30. It, for three generations becomes 90. There are 13 bosons intermediary to four fundamental forces i.e. graviton for gravitational force, photon for electromagnetic, three vector bosons (W , W-, Zo) for weak nuclear and eight gluons for strong nuclear force. Numerous Higgs bosons are needed by the ‘massless’ elementary particles to be eaten to gain mass. There are innumerable photons with different mass-energies composing the extensive e.m. spectrum. Relativity demands all these ‘non-composite, undeformable fundamental particles’ to be sizeless points so that a force can be transmitted to the whole of a particle instantly. And the 13 intermediary bosons plus neutrinos and antineutrinos are to be, not only sizeless but also massless so that they can move at light velocity c without gaining infinite kinetic energy.
But in UPT, all real particles have more-than-zero size as also mass. And this large number of non-composite particles in the modern Standard Model cannot satisfy a parsimonious physicist. In fact, the quark-lepton theory [2, 3] was formulated to bring order in the diversity of hadrons but has itself led to over 100 elementary particles [2-7] making the term "element" meaningless.
The most basic element(s) must compose the most basic substance in Nature. What is that basic substance? And what is its physical nature? Modern Physics is not at all clear. Let us inquire.
2. Micromost compositional unity and basic substance
Einstein’s equation E=mc2 was the first to bring out the basic equivalence, inter-convertibility and unification of the energy E and mass m. It supports and is supported by the ‘particle smashing’ experiments in which charged particles are accelerated to very high energies and then made to collide. These include head-on collisions between electron-electron, electron-positron, proton-proton, proton-antiproton and two heavy ions. Although the accelerating machines and the accelerated particles vary, one thing is common in all these experiments. The kinetic energy of the colliding particles transforms into newly created real particles of non-zero rest mass. The total electric charge is conserved and the total energy-mass satisfies the Einstein equation E=mc2. The modern Physics stops here fully satisfied. But the basic question of the physical mechanisms remains unanswered, nay even unasked!
Inter-transformation of the kinetic energy and matter inescapably suggests that the two be composed by some more basic and subtler entity, common and continuous in both. Einstein did not and the contemporary Physics does not ask or entertain, leave aside answering, the question: "What is the physical nature of that subtle entity?" The inter-conversions of the radiant and other forms of energy among themselves and/or with matter (electron-positron pair) point to the ‘composition unity’ of radiation, energy and mass. Compositionally the radiation-wave and its propagating medium are one, as for example, the water wave is composed by the same water in or on which it propagates. This suggests the basic composition-unity of all forms of mass, energy, radiation and the space medium. The last, as the subtlest entity in Nature, emerges as the micromost ‘basic substance’ composed by the new particle ‘sharmon’ (named after this author to indicate that the ‘sharmon medium’ is not any old ether revived). The sharmon is constituted by the micromost ‘basic elements’, the UPT’s two cosminos, namely the positive positrino and negative negatrino. These, in turn, compose all forms of mass, particles of matter and antimatter, energy, energy quanta and radiation in the Cosmos, hence given their common name ‘cosmino’. Detailed discussion on sharmon and cosminos is given in Chapter-3 and that on sharmon medium in Chapter-4 of the forthcoming book "Realistic Foundations of Physics & Cosmology".
3. New Standard Model of UPT
Important features of the UPT Standard Model  are as follows:
(i) Two basic elementary particles: positive positrino & negative negatrino. These make up the new particle "sharmon" of the new physical medium in free space herein taken as the ‘basic substance’ in the micromost compositional unity of mass, energy and radiation. These also compose all forms of energy, energy quanta and particles of matter and antimatter. The quarks as isolated intact units do not exist even within the hadrons presently supposed as being built by them. The UPT’s cosmino-sharmon compositions of some quarks and leptons have, however, been worked out. The leptons have dynamic cosmino-sharmon structure (Cf. sec. 7, 25, 29, and 30 of the article Physics & Cosmology: A Realistic Reappraisal).
(ii) Three basic charges: gravitational (mass), electric ( ve, -ve), and colour (R, B, G), anticolour (R^, B^, G^).
(iii) Unification of cosmino charges: Since an 'element' composes other particles and is itself non-composite, it has to have uniform properties through out its whole. Or it is to be singly charged because multiple charges imply its as many constituents. Moreover, inter-charge attractions to bind electric and colour charges and the mass with other two charges are inconceivable. One can think of a neutral i.e. chargeless mass but not of massless charges, electric or colour. Therefore the above three basic charges are three different manifestations of a single primal charge or entity, namely the cosmino itself, into which the three basic charges inseparably unify. The three different manifestations are mediated via the corresponding three different kinds of fields and forces which feel and are felt by the concerned basic charges.
(iv) The electroweak theory unrealistic: We do not take weak as a basic cosmino charge since it does not conserve [5, 6]. The weakest support to Electro-Weak theory is the detection of "virtual" W and Zo bosons, NOT in a natural beta decay but in particle smashing machines, transiently assembled from cosmino-sharmon content of the mass and kinetic energy of the colliding particles. Therefore the modern "weak" charge and weak force are non-existent; and the "weak phenomena" have been re-explained without the weak charge, weak bosons (W , W-, Zo) and weak force in the forthcoming book "Realistic Foundations of Physics & Cosmology". (Cf. Sec. 36 of the article Physics & Cosmology: A Realistic Reappraisal ).
(v) No Fermion is neutral: Both cosminos have spin . So no -spin particle, nay any fermion (with spin , 1 , 2 etc.), composed by them can be neutral because at least one of the odd numbered (2n 1) composing cosminos remains un-neutralised. The neutron, antineutron, neutrino and anti-neutrino are "neutral" only for practical purposes but carry very small yet more-than-zero net electric and colour charge as also non-zero mass. For example, neutron and antineutrino are negative and antineutron and neutrino positive.
(vi) Higgs Boson-A flawed concept: From the logic of the above para it follows that the idea, in the Modern Standard Model, of separate Higgs boson(s) which the elementary particles eat to gain mass, is an invalid concept. It is more so since a massless electron cannot gain 0.51 MeV/c2 mass or a neutrino the 0.1 eV/c2 mass by eating an 812-846 MeV/c2 or 115 GeV/c2 Higgs boson . It is therefore not clear what the wasteful hunts for Higgs boson have so far found or will in future find in its name .
(vii) All-pervading sharmon medium: The ‘sharmon medium’ is a kinetic gas composed by sharmon, filling all space and pervading all physical bodies in the universe. The existence or creatibility of absolute vacuum for a significant period of time is redundant. The sharmon medium is the ‘basic substance’ composed by the micromost basic elements, positive positrino and negative negatrino, the two in turn compose all forms of mass, energy and radiation. See details in Chapter 4 of the forthcoming book "Realistic Foundations of Physics & Cosmology".
(viii) Three infinite range forces and fields: gravitational, electric/e.m., colour. All are propagated contiguously in the sharmon medium at the same velocity of light c, though set differently by the respective physical parameters of the sharmon medium. Their mediator bosons (graviton, photon, colouron) comprise multiple sharmons of non-zero mass (Vide Chapter-6 of the forthcoming book "Realistic Foundations of Physics & Cosmology").
(ix) Four short-range exchange interactions with the range R= h/2p mc are set by the mediator's mass m: (a) Colour, mediated by coloured bosons, electrically charged or neutral, with negligible gravitational and electric interactions e.g. the strong nuclear force. (b) Electric, mediated by electrically charged colourless bosons. (c) Gravitational, mediated by bosons with no electric or colour charge. (d) Mechanical, mediated via absorption of the mechanical momentum of mediator bosons, absorption of outward momenta yielding the repulsive force and of inward momenta, the attractive force.
2.4 Sharmon Medium improves on ether, spacetime & physical vacuum
The paleoclassical theories’ unclarity about the physical natures of vacuum, light medium and light has led to the "unnecessary" origin of Relativity and Quantum Theories. This was expressed by Einstein in 1951 thus: "All these 50 years of conscious brooding have brought me no nearer to the answer to the question: What are light quanta?" And the neoclassical UPT's most basic and striking point of departure from the past and present theories of Physics relates to the nature of the physical medium in free space as ‘basic substance’.
2.4.1 The classical ether
The old classical ether had to be extremely more rigid than air since it propagated transverse light waves, mistakenly likened to sound waves, at the high velocity c. This should have introduced in the motion of heavenly bodies a significant drag but that has not been actually observed.
Since the earth moves through the ether, the observed velocity of light should vary with the observer's motion, with and relative to the earth's motion. A measurement of this variation in light-velocity should give an idea of the earth's motion through ether and about the stationary ether itself. However the elegant and precise experiments of Albert Abraham Michelson and Adward William Morley  failed to detect any such velocity variation, disproving the hypothesis of stationary ether.
Francis Fitzgerald and Hendrik Lorentz , to account for these results and to still save the ether theory, hypothesized that the ‘actual’ length of bodies moving counter to the relative ether wind shortens in proportion of 1 to (1 - v2/c2)1/2 parallel to its relative velocity v < c. But the Special Relativity , which discarded the ether as unnecessary and superfluous (for its mathematics), deduced the same formula for the contraction of ‘observed’ length from the axiomatic assumption of the invariance of c to source-observer motion. But our UPT’s general invariance of c to the motions of the source and observer separately makes the concept of ‘contraction of length’ of both these approaches redundant (see sec. 4.4 below and also Chapters-6 & 7 of the forthcoming book Realistic Foundations of Physics & Cosmology).
4.2 The spacetime continuum of Relativity Theories
In Relativity [11, 12], the universal spacetime continuum propagates light and gravitation, interacts with gravitational mass bodies and bends or curves in a gravitational field. It had taken on certain (not all) functions, previously attributed to ether. The ether was no longer required even to provide for an absolute frame of reference since all reference frames are now relative. Newton's corpuscular theory of light also did not need a light propagating medium because the light corpuscles could readily move in an empty space. In fact, Newton was not very clear and did not commit himself about the nature of ether. Einstein discarded the luminiferous ether and built his Relativity Theories [11, 12] without it. Yet his spacetime continuum is endowed with certain (not all) physical properties. What does it all mean?
Let us bring out the self-contradictions inherent in Relativity Theories. A deep intuition shows that the abstract concept of time evolves from our direct perceptions of temporal successions "then, now, then" and that of space from those of spatial successions "there, here, there", arising from the motions and changes of the surrounding objects. If all were to stand still without any motion and change all-round, there would have been no successive percepts and hence no concepts of time and space. Both time and space are intangible abstract concepts, the two cannot, therefore, fuse together to generate any tangible spacetime continuum, concrete enough to propagate light and gravitation. Both Minkowski  and Einstein [11,12] denied physical objectivity to both time and space separately but wrongly imparted concrete reality to their mathematical union, the 4-D spacetime. This later led to higher dimensional hyperspaces as mathematical constructs, not real entities. The multidimensional hyperspaces and the theories [14-17] based on them, though mathematically sound in themselves, therefore lack real physical significance.
Einstein's attributing physical properties to the mathematical spacetime was only a mathematical compulsion and hence unnatural. So much so that both the relativity postulates on the constancy and invariance of c to source-observer motion were introduced axiomatically without any deeper physical explanation, say, starting from the spacetime continuum. He borrowed the concept of constant c from James Clerk Maxwell without explaining why c is, or should be, constant. The dismissal of light medium came as a sequel to the 17th century view of vacuum when the concept of electromagnetic radiation as a "wave in empty space without its propagating medium" was born. Second postulate on the invariance of c to source-observer motion was also not explained, it only assumed and incorporated, instead of explaining, the results of Michelson-Morley (M-M) experiments . The theory of Special Relativity  did not include the physical explanation of its postulates from any universal medium and the General Relativity  was essentially a theory of Gravitation. Therefore, Einstein [11,12] did not need the ether. But he could not completely reconcile with his dismissal of the ether, and is reported  to have later repeatedly said that we cannot manage in theoretical Physics without a continuum with physical properties. So, his 4-D spacetime remains physically unnatural, unclear and incomplete. Most strikingly, it could not meet the requirements of the Quantum Mechanics.
4.3 The physical vacuum of Quantum Theory
Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac in 1928-30 was the first to derive a first order differential equation for the motion of an electron from the laws of both Relativity and Quantum Mechanics . It predicted the existence of positron. After the discovery of Wolfgang Pauli's Exclusion Principle, the vacuum was described as the "Dirac sea" filled without limit, of negative energy. It is now called the "physical vacuum" which can polarize, create photons and particle-antiparticle pairs, and even become a superconductor of "weak currents" when its symmetry is spontaneously broken, and so on. Some of these notions violate the well-established laws for the conservation of energy and momentum. These violations are considered valid since they satisfy the permissible limits set by the Heisenberg relations of the Uncertainty Principle, which UPT rejects as not describing the objective reality correctly. The modern Physics is, in fact, not at all clear on the structure and physical contents of the physical vacuum. The UPT comes here to fill the conceptual vacuum.
4.4 UPT’s Sharmon Medium
The UPT's all composing and all pervading sharmon medium is a kinetic gas comprising sharmons which are constituted by the two micromost elementary cosminos, ve positrino and -ve negatrino. With very small density, rigidity and viscosity the sharmon medium offers a negligible drag on the motion of heavenly bodies (Vide Chap-4 of the forthcoming book Realistic Foundations of Physics & Cosmology).
According to UPT, the energy quantum emitted from an excited electron in the source is received by a neighbouring sharmon to mark the ‘origin’ of an e.m. wave along which the thus energized sharmon or the photon is propagated in the sharmon medium via contiguous mechanisms from sharmon to sharmon up to the ‘terminus’ of the e.m. wave from where the photon is transferred to the target. Due to the creative origin of light its velocity c is independent of the source motion and light’s destructive termination makes c independent of the motion of the target or observer. The velocity of light c = (eo. o)-1/2 is constant and invariant to source-observer motion, whether uniform (Special Relativity) or non-uniform (General Relativity), since it is set by the electric permittivity eo and magnetic permeability o of the propagating sharmon medium which are not affected by the source-observer motion. Both relativity postulates on the constancy and invariance to source-observer motion, of c, thus follow very naturally in UPT (See details in Chapter-7 of the forthcoming book Realistic Foundations of Physics & Cosmology).
Sharmon medium being the subtlest physical entity in Nature is the "basic substance". The positrino and negatrino, constituting the new particle ‘sharmon’, are the two micromost basic constituents of the ‘basic substance’ and compose all forms of energy, mass and radiation. The law of conservation of energy and mass is united into that of the single ‘substance’.
The basic cosmino charges are three: gravitational, electric and colour. These are three different manifestations of a single charge, namely the cosmino itself into which they inseparably unite and unify. The three basic interactions are of two kinds, one with infinite range and the other of short range. The modern "weak force" is replaced by twin exchange interactions: electric and gravitational. The infinite range gravitational, electric/e.m., and colour signals, forces and fields are propagated in the sharmon medium via contiguous mechanisms at the same velocity c (of light) though set separately and differently by the respective physical parameters of the medium. Their mediating bosons (graviton, photon, colouron), composed by multiple sharmons, have non-zero mass.
No particle in real Nature is massless, dimensionless or "virtual" (unreal). The QED's polarization of vacuum, and creation /annihilation of virtual photons and particle-antiparticle pairs are realistically mediated via sharmons and/or cosminos in the sharmon medium with strict conservation of the "substance" i.e. energy and mass. The cosmological red shifts are caused by depletion of the spectral photon energy during long journey through the sharmon medium. Thus, UPT's sharmon medium is a realistic improvement over the old ether, Relativity's spacetime and QED's physical vacuum.
5. Objective Reality independent of observer
The UPT  also departs from the contemporary theories on the role and status of the observer in science.
The Physics, and for that matter any exact science, describes the facts and phenomena of the inanimate objective realities which exist irrespective and independently of the observer. Why and how, for example, the moon or an imperceptible micro particle or an invisible distant galaxy could or should exist only if viewed by, and only during the attention of, an observer? Due to ineliminable inherent limitations of the signal mediated human perception, the observer's knowledge of the observed objects and phenomena remains uncontrollably inexact and uncertain. This is because we observe the objects NOT directly but only through the perceptible signals coming from them. Limitations of the mediating signals and the human intellect cause the unavoidable uncertainty.
But this uncontrollable subjective uncertainty in the observer's acquiring exact knowledge of the object cannot and does not make the objective reality itself inexact or uncertain. The physical phenomena of real objects should be, as they actually are, governed by the magnitudes of the physical parameters like energy, time, momentum, size, etc. as they actually and objectively are and NOT as they appear to the observer in relative motion or rest. The Einstein’s Relativity [11,12] and Heisenberg’s Quantum Mechanics [19,20] are flawed because they use observer's subjective appearances or ‘measured magnitudes’ to formulate objective laws, and expect or demand the real objective Nature to change and modify so as to fit their mathematical descriptions. In UPT the governance of physical phenomena of the objective reality by its actual objective parameters holds inviolably and remains independent of the observer, of the observation and of the observing signal. The process of observation does affect the magnitude of the objective parameters, which in the then affected values govern the objective phenomena though their magnitudes remain uncertain to the observer.
6. Objective Time & Space independent of observer
Einstein  reviewed the traditional concepts of "clock" and "measuring rod" by intimately linking the process of "observation" of the "local proper time" and the "length of test rod" with "space-time coincidences" and with the "observing light signal", to synchronize "distant clocks" eliminating the concepts of "universal time" or "universal now".
Relativity's time and space are NOT the objective parameters. But are in effect, the "light time" and "light space" as subjectively estimated by the observer by using light signal, consistent with constancy and invariance of c to source-observer motion. But the light velocity c, being invariant to source-observer motion, is linked with the ‘objective space’ and ‘objective time’ irrespective and independent of the observer. Therefore the objective concepts of space and time are not observer dependent.
7. Lorentz transformations unrealistic
Einstein borrowed the constancy of c from Maxwell and incorporated the results of Michelson-Morley experiments in the invariance of c to source-observer motion, to derive the Lorentz formulae for transformations of coordinates and time. These derivations implied and predicted contractions of length and dilatations of time, varying with the relative velocity of the observer. But any physical object or real event viewed by say 100 differently moving observers at 100 different relative velocities, cannot distort to 100 different extents objectively at the same time. Obviously, the relativistic contractions of length and dilatations of time are unrealistic and do not describe the objective realities correctly. Secondly, the constancy and invariance to source-observer motion of the velocity do hold for the light photon but certainly not for the material bodies. The material bodies move under the action of externally impressed force in accord with Newton’s laws of motion but the photon is self propagated along an e.m. wave in the sharmon medium via contiguous mechanisms. No real particle in Nature has the dual kinematics of both c and v of the Lorentz transformations, which therefore do not describe any natural motion in the objective physical reality.
Other deduction from the Lorentz transformations is the addition of velocities which wrongly limits the natural velocities to c, and concludes that no physical body with finite non-zero mass can move at a velocity c and that photon has zero mass as its velocity is c. However, experiments show that light velocity can vary [21, 22] and also exceed c . Therefore UPT does not accept these unrealistic conclusions. The light velocity in free space cannot be changed mechanically but a cascaded array of increasingly faster moving frames can increase the velocity of a material body to superphotic (>c) magnitudes. The relative velocity of electron and positron, for example, does exceed c when they move oppositely at ~ c for particle smashing experiments, and the photon, like graviton and colouron, being composed by multiple sharmons, has definitely a finite more-than-zero mass, yet moves at c in the sharmon medium contiguously.
Due to unclarity about the nature of light and the light medium, Einstein was misled to the Lorentz transformations and to their unrealistic deductive predictions. This was because he had unrealistically mixed up the unmixable kinematics of photon via light velocity c and that of material particle via velocity v, in the derivation of the Lorentz transformations, which in effect actually describe no real motion of any real physical body in the real Nature.(See Chapter-7 of the forthcoming book Realistic Foundations of Physics & Cosmology for details.)
8 Heisenberg uncertainty principle not objective
The UPT does not accept the anti-causality "objective indeterminism" as misconstrued by the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle .
Heisenberg carried forward Einstein’s [11, 12] critical review of the traditional concepts of "space-time coincidences", "observation", the "observer-object interaction" etc. He showed that energy and time (E, t) or momentum and distance (p, x) cannot be simultaneously observed with smaller uncertainties than the limits set by:
D E . D t h/2p ... (1) ; D p . D x h/2p ... (2)
because the measurement of E (ih / t) after measuring t or of p(-ih / x) after measuring x, throws the system uncontrollably out of the state left at the end of t or x measurement due to / t or / x variation. The observed E, t and p, x pairs are thus not determinate, nor belong to the same eigenstate simultaneously.
Since Quantum Theory treats objective reality as a metaphysical speculation outside of Physics and deals in "what can be observed", not "what there actually is", in the microcosm, the subjective relations (1) and (2) were deduced essentially for the uncertainties D E, D t, D p, D x in the magnitudes of observed parameters. The confusion arose, which still persists, because these were misconstrued to represent variations and/or spontaneous fluctuations in the actual objective parameters E, t, p, x. The confusion got confounded when relations (1) and (2) were raised to the status of natural laws more basic than the conservation of energy and momentum. Violations, within limits set by (1) and (2), of the otherwise inviolable conservation laws were thereby validated or introduced anew which wrongly implied "objective indeterminism" much against the ‘causality principle’. This misled to the unrealistic concepts of the spontaneous creation and annihilation of "virtual" (i.e. unreal) photons or energy quanta and particle-antiparticle pairs in Nuclear Physics, and of the "initial creation of matter out of nothing" in the Theories of Expanding Universe [24, 25].
Further, the relation (1) with D t = D x/c or (2) with D p = D E/c gives the relativistic energy-distance uncertainty relation
This has put into disarray all the classical concepts of location, boundary, trajectory, size, and even as of the micro particle being composed and bound by more massive sub-units  because here the fluctuation D E in E exceeds E itself. And according to M.A.Markov (1965) the radius R of an elementary particle does not exceed its Compton wavelength h/mc or R h/mc. His "maximon" of radius ~10-33 cm has the mass 10-5 gm, giving the density of 1094 gm/cm3.
The UPT rejects all these derivations, deductions and concepts despite Dirac's  commendation of the underlying non-commuting Algebra (Cf sec 8.8.2 of the forthcoming book Realistic Foundations of Physics & Cosmology). In UPT the ‘causality principle’, the "objective determinism" and the conservation of energy and momentum hold even for the subatomic micro phenomena. The energy-distance inverse relation (3) is replaced by direct proportionality D E D x at the Planck scale for the computation of cosmino mass in Chap-3 of the forthcoming book Realistic Foundations of Physics & Cosmology.
9. Anomalies of gyromagnetic ratio g and magnetic moment m of basic particles in Dirac QED removed
In UPT, the electron, proton, and neutron are shown to have finite sizes and dynamic cosmino-sharmon compositions which are free from the anomalies of gyromagnetic ratio g and magnetic moment (m ), vide Chapters-9 &10 of the forthcoming book Realistic Foundations of Physics & Cosmology.
Since the all-composing cosminos have spin , no -spin particle, nay fermion, composed by them can be electrically or colour neutral. For example, the neutron is theoretically predicted to have, as it is actually observed to carry, a net -ve electric charge and a -ve electric dipole moment, vide Chap-10 of the forthcoming book Realistic Foundations of Physics & Cosmology. The quarks as isolated intact units do not exist even within the hadrons, which are supposed in modern theories as composed by them, and the leptons have dynamic cosmino composition.
10. Basic wave-quantum unity in radiation & matter
The electromagnetic radiation is propagated as motion of its wave-energy quantum (photon) along the transverse e.m. wave in the sharmon medium via contiguous mechanisms from sharmon to sharmon. The frequency n (= E/h) of the wave is related to the energy E set by the source and the velocity c = (eo. o)-1/2 is set by eo & o of the sharmon medium. The wavelength l =c/n = h/p is related to the momentum p of the wave-quantum.
A material body when in motion generates a "ripple" in the ambient sharmon medium which remain inseparably associated with the moving body. The kinetic energy mv2 = E (= hn ) of the body comprises multiple sharmons and is related to the frequency n , and its momentum mv = p(= h/l ) to the wavelength l of the sharmon ripple moving with the body at its (body’s own) velocity v. The similarity in the mathematical relations, E= hn and p= h/l between the parameters of the particle (E, p) and wave (n ,l ) aspects of the radiation and moving particle under the Quantum Theory is, in our UPT and in this book, raised to physical identity because the energy quantum in both comprises sharmons.
The sharmon ripples associated with the moving -ve electron, ve proton/positron, or neutral neutron/atom/molecule are of the same nature i.e. independent of the electrical nature of the moving particle. And affect the photographic plate. The velocity of the ripple, however, equals not the c but that of the moving particle v and hence is NOT set by the medium. Therefore the ripple is not e.m., gravitational or colour in nature. It is an energetic mechanical wavelet, which can affect the photographic plate.
Thus both radiation and matter have intrinsic wave-quantum unity (in UPT), which appears as wave-or-quantum duality (in QT) due to experimental limitations to observe only one of the two coexistent characters at a time, not both. Interestingly, both the particle and wave aspects for both low intensity light and stream of electrons have been demonstrated  simultaneously in one and the same experiment. This provides experimental support to UPT’s wave-quantum unity as against Quantum Theory’s wave-or-quantum duality. See details in Chapter-8 of the forthcoming book Realistic Foundations of Physics & Cosmology.
11. Effect-at- a-distance in UPT
11.1 Infinite range
In UPT, the electric/magnetic/e.m., gravitational and colour effects of infinite range are produced via contiguous propagation through the sharmon medium. Inseparability of the three basic charges (electric, gravitational, colour) on the cosminos composing the propagating sharmons of the sharmon medium ordains, all these propagations to occur at the same velocity c (of light), though set separately by the respective physical parameters of the sharmon medium. The mediator bosons (photon, graviton, colouron) comprising multiple sharmons have finite non-zero mass, yet move at c. Sec 6.1 of the forthcoming book Realistic Foundations of Physics & Cosmology , gives further details.
11.2 Short range
The short range effects are mediated via exchange interactions. The range R= h/mc of the Yukawa type force -(G/4p r). exp(-r/R) is determined by the mass m of the mediating boson. These are of four kinds:
(a) The inter-hadron strong nuclear force is the tertiary evolute of the primary inter-cosmino colour interaction, the inter-quark colour interaction being the secondary evolute. Here colour charge interaction is the most prominent (See sec 3.5.1 of the forthcoming book Realistic Foundations of Physics & Cosmology), the electric charge and gravitational mass of the mediating particle producing insignificant force of interaction.
(b) The short range electrical exchange interaction is mediated by colourless electrically charged particle(s), vide sec. 3.5.4 of the forthcoming book Realistic Foundations of Physics & Cosmology.
(c) The particles mediating short-range gravitational exchange interaction do not carry any electric or colour charge (sec 3.5.5 of the forthcoming book Realistic Foundations of Physics & Cosmology). These might be operative within the black holes, if existent. The "weak force" of modern Physics does not exist in UPT, but may be taken to bracket twin interactions: the electric, mediated via W and the gravitational, mediated by Zo.
The massive mediating particle(s) need not be emitted by one of the two interacting bodies and absorbed by the other, since the recoil force D E/D x = mc2/R = m2c3/h is too big. Here we can plausibly hypothesize the participation of three particles: the carrier, the emitted, and the absorbed. One of the two interacting bodies emits a tiny particle of mass m1 that is absorbed by the carrier particle of mass M which in turn emits the same or another tiny particle of mass m2 to be absorbed by the other interacting body. The range (h/mc) setting mass m, is the harmonic mean of the three participants and is given by: 3/m = 1/m1 1/M 1/m2.
(d) The fourth kind of short-range interaction in UPT is mechanical in nature. It results from and is mediated by the absorption of mechanical momentum of the mediating exchange particle(s) by the interacting bodies. Absorption of the outward momentum produces the repulsive force and that of the inward momentum yields an attractive force. The closest range "repulsive" component of the nuclear force seems to be of mechanical origin. The colour and mechanical "attractive" components arise as inter-nucleon separation increases. Combination of these repulsive and attractive forces produces the customarily observed force-distance curve.
11.3 Lines of force
One can visualize the existence of curvilinear lines of force in the 3-dimensional sharmon medium for the electric, magnetic, gravitational, and colour fields traced by the intervening sharmons like the iron filings used to map out the lines of force for a magnet. The tangent to the line of force at any point gives the direction of the resultant force. In a gravitational field the attractive force acts in both the opposite directions along the tangent. But in the electric or magnetic field the direction of a line of force or of its tangent at any point is the same as of the force on a ve charge or north pole.
12. The new theory of Non-expanding Universe
In UPT's new theory, the cosmological red shift is caused by the non-Doppler energy depletion of the spectral photon during long passage through the sharmon medium, due mainly to the viscous losses, with minor contributions from the gravitational and electromagnetic losses. The net total electric and colour charges in the universe are zero. The "universal gravitation" creates self-compression, which is counter balanced by the kinetic pressure in the sharmon medium. The total cosmic "substance" in the universe comprises sharmons and cosminos and is eternally conserved. As against the Big Bang  and Steady State  theories of the expanding universe, there are no initial "creations of matter out of nothing". In UPT the non-expanding universe is a finite and closed unit. Light photons cannot escape it because the propagating sharmon medium ends with and marks its periphery. See details in Chapter-10 of the forthcoming book Realistic Foundations of Physics & Cosmology.
13. New Principle of Null Action
In UPT, action is a dynamic evolute of the sharmon. Its conservation, alongwith that of energy and momentum, leads to a new Principle of Null Action from which the "working equations" of diverse phenomena and varied fields of Physics have been derived, illustrating its universal versatility. Conceptually, it is superior to the old Hamilton's Principle of Least Action. Details are given in Chapter-12 of the forthcoming book Realistic Foundations of Physics & Cosmology.
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